These are the collection of scientific instruments that provide useful information to the crew. Sheffield is the most advanced research ship in the fleet (until other ships are retrofitted). She has a superior arsenal of sensors and superior sensor range compared to previous Federation starships. There are various sensor arrays including: the lower sensor platform of the primary hull, lateral, aft, forward, dorsal and ventral arrays elsewhere. The Engineering section has an additional array around the deflector array, scanning for upcoming hazards.